Research and Referencing

Databases and Guides PICO Referencing
Literature Searching Critical Appraisal EndNote
Literature Reviews Case Studies Remote Access
Systematic Reviews Clinical Audit  
Evidence-Based Medicine Writing  


CM Health Library Research Guide [pdf]


Databases and Guides


EBSCO databases: Medline Complete; CINAHL Complete; Health and Business Elite

EBSCO User Guide

EBSCO Help: Video tutorials from Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library  

Ovid databases: AMED; Medline; Embase; PsycInfo

Ovid User Guide - Advanced Guide

Ovid Help: Video tutorials from Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library  

Wellington Medical & Health Sciences Library: Medline and OvidSP Searching


PubMed Help: Quick Tutorials

Using MeSH on Demand to search PubMed using subject headings - see MeSH on Demand

PubMed Help: Video tutorials from Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library  

PubMed for Nurses: set of videos, designed specifically for nurses, provides an introduction to searching literature in PubMed



The Cochrane Library

The Cochrane Library: How to use the Cochrane Library


Grey Literature

Wellington Medical & Health Sciences Library: Grey Literature Searching



Literature Searching


CM Health Library book:

De Brún, Caroline Pearce-Smith, Nicola. Searching Skills Toolkit-Finding the Evidence. 2014 [ebook]


Online self paced tutorials:

Module 3 of 'Building the Foundations' - How do I start to develop a search strategy?

Module 6 of  'Developing the Skills' - Searching with subject headings



Bramer, Wichor M et al. Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA vol. 106,4 (2018): 531-541.
A systematic approach to searching: an efficient and complete method to develop literature searches

Brusco,JM. AORN Journal 2010;92(3):264-71
Effectively Conducting an Advanced Literature Search

Czaplewski,LM  Journal of Infusion Nursing 2010;35(1):20-6
Searching the Literature: a researcher's perspective

Echevarria,IM., & Walker,S  Nursing 2014;44(2):18-9
To make your case, start with a PICOT question

Klem,ML., & Northcutt,T  JEN: Journal of Emergency Nursing 2008;34(2):151-3
Finding the best evidence, part 2: the basics of literature searches

Morris,N.  Education for Primary Care 2010;21(2):124-5
How to...carry out a literature search

Price,B. Nursing Standard 2009;23(24):43-49
Guidance on conducting a literature search and reviewing mixed literature

see also Using research evidence: a practical guide


Literature Reviews

CM Health Library book:

The Literature Review: Six steps to success by Lawrence Machi and Brenda McEvoy
                                  3rd ed. 2016     W 20.5 M 149 3rd ed.



Rapid Review Guidebook: steps for conducting a rapid review [NCCMT]
Outlines the process of conducting a rapid literature review. It includes suggestions on how to tailor the process for limited resources without sacrificing methodological rigour.


Updated methodological guidance for the conduct of scoping reviews [JBI]
The objective of this paper is to describe the updated methodological guidance for conducting a JBI scoping review, with a focus on new updates to the approach and development of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (the PRISMA-ScR)


Deeble Institute Perspectives Brief No. 12 (2020)
Evaluating literature review methodologies for policymakers

Coughlan, M., Cronin,P., & Ryan,F. British Journal of Nursing 2007;16(11):659-63
Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1:quantitative research

Ryan, F., Coughlan,M., & Cronin,P. British Journal of Nursing 2007;16(12):738-44
Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 2:qualitative research

Cronin,P., Ryan,F., & Coughlan,M. British Journal of Nursing 2008;17(1):38-43
Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach

Foster,RL. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing 2013;18(2):85-8
Extracting and synthesizing information from a literature review

Kowalczyk,N., & Truluck,R. Radiologic Technology 2013;85(2):219-222
Literature reviews and systematic reviews: what is the difference?

Pautasso,M. PLOS Computational Biology 2013;9(7):e1003149
Ten simple rules for writing a literature review 



Systematic Reviews

Overview and Guidelines:


Introduction to systematic reviews: online learning module [Cochrane] 

Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions


CM Health Library Book Chapter:

Bennett,S., O'Connor,D., Hannes,K., & Doyle,S.
Appraising and understanding systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence in Evidence-Based Practice across the Health Professions 2nd ed. 2013 (*CM Health Library print collection)
W 84 H 711 2nd ed


Conducting a systematic literature search

Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library: Systematic reviews: planning, writing and supporting

Video tutorials from Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library  

See also:

•    Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions  (2011 ed.)
•    JBI Reviewers’ Manual (2014 ed.)



Standards for Systematic Reviews [National Academies of Sciences]

Standards for Initiating a Systematic Review
Standards for Finding and Assessing Individual Studies
Standards for Synthesizing the Body of Evidence
Standards for Reporting Systematic Reviews
see also Systematic Reviews and Clinical Guidelines




The Cochrane Library   Systematic reviews on health issues

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects   Systematic reviews on health issues

Evidence Updates   Systematic reviews on clinical issues

Health Evidence   Systematic reviews on public health issues

Health Systems Evidence   Systematic reviews on health system issues

JBI Database of Systematic Reviews A refereed, online journal that publishes systematic review protocols and systematic reviews of healthcare research


Akobeng,AK. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 2005;90(8):845-848
Understanding systematic reviews and meta-analysis - not available to be linked

Bettany-Saltikov,J.  Nursing Standard 2010;24(50):47-56
Learning how to undertake a systematic review: part 1

Bettany-Saltikov,J. Nursing Standard 2010;24(51):47-60
Learning how to undertake a systematic review: part 2

Malik,MA.  JPMA-Journal of the Pakisatan Medical Association 2014;64(10):1208-10
How to write an introduction and methods of a systematic review of literature

Murad MH, et al. (2014) JAMA 312(2) : 171-179                   
How to Read a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis and Apply the Results to Patient Care: Users’ Guides to the Medical Literature           

Reeves,S., Koppel,I., Barr,H., Freeth,D., & Hammick,M. Medical Teacher 2002;24(4):358-363
Twelve tips for undertaking a systematic review

Rew,L. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing 2011;16(1):64-69
The systematic review of literature: synthesizing evidence for practice

Sandelowski, M.  Journal of Advanced Nursing 2008;64(1):104-10
Reading, writing and systematic review


Evidence-Based Medicine


UpToDate Guide to Evidence-based medicine


CM Health Library Books:


Greenhaig, Trisha How to implement evidence-based healthcare 2017 [ebook]

Greenhaigh, Trisha  How to read a paper: the basics of evidence-based medicine. 5th ed. 2014 [print]
WB 141 G 813 5th ed

Guyatt, Gordon; Rennie, Drummond; Meade, Maureen O; Cook, Deborah J  Users' guides to the medical literature : a manual for evidence-based clinical practice . 2014 [print]
W 20.5 A 986

Hoffmann, Tammy; Bennett, Sally; Del Mar, Chris  Evidence-based practice across the health professions. 2nd ed. 2013 [print]
W 84 H 711 2nd ed

Howick, Jeremy H Philosophy of Evidence-based Medicine . 2014 [ebook]

Shreves, Ashley, Bhanot, Kavita and Newman, David "Evidence-based medicine" in Emergency Medicine [ebook chapter]

Stern, Scott D. C; Cifu, Adam S; Altkorn, Diane Symptom to diagnosis : an evidence-based guide . 2010 [print]


further online reading from the CM Health Library ebook collection

Chapters on Evidence-based medicine in the Clinicalkey collection [682 chapters]



Nunan,D, O'Sullivan,J, Heneghan,C, Pluddemann,A, Aronson,J & Mahtani,K. (2017).
Ten essential papers for the practice of evidence-based medicine
Evidence-Based Medicine
, 22(6), 202-204. doi:10.1136/ebmed-2017-110854

Caldwell,PHY., Bennett,T., & Mellis,C.  Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2012;48:1095-1100
Easy guide to searching for evidence for the busy clinician

Masic, Izet, Milan Miokovic, and Belma Muhamedagic. “Evidence Based Medicine – New Approaches and Challenges.” Acta Informatica Medica 16.4 (2008): 219–225.

Windish,D.  Evidence-Based Medicine 2013;18(3):93-97
Searching for the right evidence: how to answer your clinical questions using the 6S hierarchy


see also

Evidence informed public health: The Registry of Methods and Tools: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools



Cochrane Library Tutorial - PICO : Formulate an answerable question

A widget to do a quick lookup in Ovid Medline, Embase or PsycInfo databases:
Ovid PICO Resource Center



Elkins,MY. Nursing 2010;40(4):59-60
Using PICO and the brief report to answer clinical questions

Santos,CMC., Pimenta,CAM., & Nobre,MRC.  Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagen 2007;15(3);508-511
The PICO strategy for the research question construction and evidence search



Critical Appraisal

Finding and Appraising the Evidence [ online learning modules ]

These modules take you through the process of how to find the evidence and then how to assess the validity and reliability of the published research in order to provide effective and efficient healthcare. The course is made up of 6 modules:


Understanding Health Research: A tool for making sense of health studies
This tool will guide you through a series of questions to help you to review and interpret a published health research paper

Healthcare Improvement Scotland: Useful tools for critical appraisal

What Is Critical Appraisal?

GRADE Handbook
The GRADE handbook describes the process of rating the quality of the best available evidence and developing health care recommendations following the approach proposed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group (www.gradeworkinggroup.org).

UpToDate Grading Guide



Alonso-Coello, Pablo, et al. (2016) BMJ Vol. 353  i2016
GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks: a systematic and transparent approach to making well informed healthcare choices. 1: Introduction

Alonso-Coello, Pablo, et al. (2016) BMJ Vol. 353 : i2089
GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks: a systematic and transparent approach to making well informed healthcare choices. 2: Clinical practice guidelines

Best Practice: Evidence based information sheets for health professionals : 1-6
Appraising Systematic Reviews.

Dans AL et al . (1998) JAMA 279(7):545-549
How to Decide on the Applicability of Clinical Trial Results to Your Patient

Guyatt, G. H , Oxman, A. D , et al . (2008) BMJ Vol. 336 Iss. 7650 : 924-926
GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations

Guyatt, G. H, Oxman, A. D, et al. (2008) BMJ Vol.  336 Iss.7651 : 995-998
What is "quality of evidence" and why is it important to clinicians?

Guyatt, G. H; Oxman, A. D; et al. (2008) BMJ Vol. 336 Iss. 7652 : 1049-1051
Going from evidence to recommendations

How to Read and Understand a Scientific Paper (2017)

Kavanagh BP (2009) PLoS Medicine. 2009;6(9):e1000094
The GRADE System for Rating Clinical Guidelines




Case Studies


Budgell,B. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 2008;52(4):199-204
Guidelines to the writing of case studies

Hewitt-Taylor,J  Nursing Standard 2002;16(20):33-37
Case study: an approach to qualitative enquiry


Clinical Audit

NZ Ministry of Health. 2002: Toward clinical excellence: an introduction to clinical audit, peer review and other clinical practice improvement activities

NHS England  Clinical Audit

HQIP. Best practice in clinical audit. 2016

Travaglia,J., & Debono,D. University of New South Wales Centre for Clinical Governance Research in Health: Clinical audit: a comprehensive review of the literature


Oakley, Clare. 101 Recipes For Audit In Psychiatry. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2011. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost)



Ashmore,S., & Ruthven,T  Nursing Management 2008;15(1):18-22 
Clinical audit: a guide

Grainger,A. Nursing Management 2010;17(4):30-33
Clinical audit: shining a light on good practice

Patel,S. Nursing Management 2010;17(3):28-34
Achieving quality assurance through clinical audit





CM Health Library books:

Action research: models, methods and examples
Claudia Edwards and , Jerry W Willis

Health writer's handbook
by Barbara Gastel
2nd ed. 2005     W20.5 G255

How to write a paper
by George M. Hall
4th ed. 2008     W20.5 H847

How to write an assignment: proven techniques from a chief examiner that really gets results:"don't start writing your assignment without this book"
by Pauline Smith
7th ed. 2009     PN239 S659

An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology
by Lorelle J Burton
2nd ed. 2007     WM20 B974

The Literature Review: Six steps to success
by Lawrence Machi and Brenda McEvoy
2nd ed. 2012     W20.5 M149

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association
by American Psychological Association
6th ed. 2010     WM20 P976

Thinking to thesis: a guide to graduate success at all levels
by Emmanuel Manalo and Julie Trafford
2004     PN239 M266

Writing for publication in nursing
by Marilyn H. Oermann and Judith C. Hays
2nd ed. 2010     WY20.5 O29



Albarran,JW., & Scholes,J  Nursing in Critical Care 2005;10(2):72-77
How to get published: seven easy steps

Costello,J  Publish or perish: Getting yourself published  2012;7(11):549-551
Publish or perish: Getting yourself published

Happell,B  Emergency Nurse  2012;20(1):33-38
Writing and publishing clinical articles: a practical guide

Powell,SS  British Journal of Healthcare Assistants  2009;3(3):141-144
Successful academic writing: developing the right style




Choosing the Right Citation Management Tool: Endnote, Mendeley, Refworks, or Zotero (JMLA, 2018)


EndNote X7 

 EndNote is a specialised bibliographic database program for storing and managing bibliographic references.
 The references can be sorted and searched, and incorporated automatically into papers for publication.

 EndNote may be installed on a designated computer for all Counties Manukau Health staff. Contact the IS department x2266.

Help with EndNote X7

The EndNote website   

EndNote Quick Guides :  Creating a New Library

                                 Selecting a Reference Style

                                 Manually Inputting Reference Information

                                 Exporting References from Ovid Databases : MedLine, Embase, PsycINFO and AMED

                                 Exporting References from EBSCO Databases : CINAHL

                                 Exporting References from Google Scholar

                                 Inserting EndNote References into a Word Document

EndNote Full Guide : Using Endnote Version X7 With Library Databases

EndNote Training Videos :
EndNote X7 overview

                                   How to use EndNote X7 in 7 minutes

                                   Importing PDFs

                                   EndNote groups

                                   Cite While You Write

                                   Edit & Manage Citations

                                   What's new in Endnote X7


We have upgraded our subscription to the latest version of Endnote, Endnote X7
Please log a job with the Health Alliance IT helpdesk if you would like Endnote X7 installed.
The old version of Endnote, X5 was retired in early 2017 however it will still be accessible on your PC until
you decide to upgrade to X7. 

If you are using EndNote X7 and you are prompted to upgrade to a new version please click "ignore this" and you will not be bothered again. 

Health Alliance will do system wide upgrades on an intermittent basis.


Using Endnote Offsite

If you need to use Endnote offsite, Endnote Web is the best way to do so. 

The first step is go to www.myendnoteweb.com and setup an account (you need to do this within the hospital as it will recognise our onsite IP address and allow you full functionality).

If you wish to import your Endnote library from Endnote X5 or X7 to Endnote Web you will need to follow the steps outlined here: http://www.myendnoteweb.com/help/en_us/ENW/hs_researchsoftimport.htm


Whilst we will retain the onsite license for EndNote until September 2018, this is currently under review and we would encourage staff who wish to use referencing tools offsite, either remotely from home or via a mobile device, to consider using one of the freely available open source reference platforms noted below.


Alternatives to EndNote


Zotero is a free , easy to use tool to help, you collect, organise, cite and share your research resources.Zotero is the only research tool that automatically senses content in your web browser, allowing you to add it to your personal library with a single click.  Zotero collects all your research in a single, searchable interface. You can add PDFs, images, audio and video files, snapshots of web pages, and really anything else. Zotero automatically indexes the full-text content of your library, enabling you to find exactly what you're looking for with just a few keystrokes. 

Quick start guide
Zotero user guide (full)
Video tutorials
see also : a short video on how toadd page numbers within in-text citations  

Adding page numbers [1:32 min] - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmR4VJnSJC0 

*NB: Zotero does not work with internet explorer



Mendeley Desktop is free academic software (Windows, Mac, Linux) for organizing and sharing research papers and generating bibliographies with 1GB of free online storage to automatically back up and synchronize your library across desktop, web and mobile. Mendeley Web is a free research network which lets you manage research papers online, discover trends and connect to like-minded academics.



APA Referencing

APA Style Guide for citations
 (* APA stands for the American Psychological Association. You’ll most likely be asked to use the APA format if your paper is on a science topic)

See also this excellent interactive tool from Massey University:
APA Interactive creates customised examples of APA references and in-text citations. 
Massey University also maintains a useful directory of other Referencing Software that staff may find useful (see the applications noted in the section 'Other Software').


Remote Access


Access to our collection from home is via our library website on HealthPoint (also available via the Counties Manukau Health website homepage).


Your username and password will be your staff ID and first name. 



username = 12345


Password = PETER


*Please note that your login to access library resources is NOT the same as the Health Point 'Sign in' and 'Register'on the top right of the health point webpage.  Click on any of the library databases or resource links to login.