Research and Referencing
|Databases and Guides||PICO||Referencing|
|Literature Searching||Critical Appraisal||EndNote|
|Literature Reviews||Case Studies||Remote Access|
|Systematic Reviews||Clinical Audit|
EBSCO databases: Medline Complete; CINAHL Complete; Health and Business Elite
Ovid databases: AMED; Medline; Embase; PsycInfo
The Cochrane Library
CM Health Library book:
De Brún, Caroline Pearce-Smith, Nicola. Searching Skills Toolkit-Finding the Evidence. 2014 [ebook]
Online self paced tutorials:
Bramer, Wichor M et al. Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA vol. 106,4 (2018): 531-541.
A systematic approach to searching: an efficient and complete method to develop literature searches
Brusco,JM. AORN Journal 2010;92(3):264-71
Effectively Conducting an Advanced Literature Search
Czaplewski,LM Journal of Infusion Nursing 2010;35(1):20-6
Searching the Literature: a researcher's perspective
Echevarria,IM., & Walker,S Nursing 2014;44(2):18-9
To make your case, start with a PICOT question
Klem,ML., & Northcutt,T JEN: Journal of Emergency Nursing 2008;34(2):151-3
Finding the best evidence, part 2: the basics of literature searches
Morris,N. Education for Primary Care 2010;21(2):124-5
How to...carry out a literature search
Price,B. Nursing Standard 2009;23(24):43-49
Guidance on conducting a literature search and reviewing mixed literature
CM Health Library book:
The Literature Review: Six steps to success by Lawrence Machi and Brenda McEvoy
3rd ed. 2016 W 20.5 M 149 3rd ed.
Rapid Review Guidebook: steps for conducting a rapid review [NCCMT]
Outlines the process of conducting a rapid literature review. It includes suggestions on how to tailor the process for limited resources without sacrificing methodological rigour.
Deeble Institute Perspectives Brief No. 12 (2020)
Evaluating literature review methodologies for policymakers
Coughlan, M., Cronin,P., & Ryan,F. British Journal of Nursing 2007;16(11):659-63
Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1:quantitative research
Ryan, F., Coughlan,M., & Cronin,P. British Journal of Nursing 2007;16(12):738-44
Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 2:qualitative research
Cronin,P., Ryan,F., & Coughlan,M. British Journal of Nursing 2008;17(1):38-43
Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach
Foster,RL. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing 2013;18(2):85-8
Extracting and synthesizing information from a literature review
Kowalczyk,N., & Truluck,R. Radiologic Technology 2013;85(2):219-222
Literature reviews and systematic reviews: what is the difference?
Pautasso,M. PLOS Computational Biology 2013;9(7):e1003149
Ten simple rules for writing a literature review
Overview and Guidelines:
CM Health Library Book Chapter:
Bennett,S., O'Connor,D., Hannes,K., & Doyle,S.
Appraising and understanding systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence in Evidence-Based Practice across the Health Professions 2nd ed. 2013 (*CM Health Library print collection)
W 84 H 711 2nd ed
• Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (2011 ed.)
• JBI Reviewers’ Manual (2014 ed.)
Standards for Systematic Reviews [National Academies of Sciences]
Standards for Initiating a Systematic Review
Standards for Finding and Assessing Individual Studies
Standards for Synthesizing the Body of Evidence
Standards for Reporting Systematic Reviews
see also Systematic Reviews and Clinical Guidelines
The Cochrane Library Systematic reviews on health issues
Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects Systematic reviews on health issues
Evidence Updates Systematic reviews on clinical issues
Health Evidence Systematic reviews on public health issues
Health Systems Evidence Systematic reviews on health system issues
JBI Database of Systematic Reviews A refereed, online journal that publishes systematic review protocols and systematic reviews of healthcare research
Akobeng,AK. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 2005;90(8):845-848
Understanding systematic reviews and meta-analysis - not available to be linked
Bettany-Saltikov,J. Nursing Standard 2010;24(50):47-56
Learning how to undertake a systematic review: part 1
Bettany-Saltikov,J. Nursing Standard 2010;24(51):47-60
Learning how to undertake a systematic review: part 2
Malik,MA. JPMA-Journal of the Pakisatan Medical Association 2014;64(10):1208-10
How to write an introduction and methods of a systematic review of literature
Murad MH, et al. (2014) JAMA 312(2) : 171-179
How to Read a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis and Apply the Results to Patient Care: Users’ Guides to the Medical Literature
Reeves,S., Koppel,I., Barr,H., Freeth,D., & Hammick,M. Medical Teacher 2002;24(4):358-363
Twelve tips for undertaking a systematic review
Rew,L. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing 2011;16(1):64-69
The systematic review of literature: synthesizing evidence for practice
Sandelowski, M. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2008;64(1):104-10
Reading, writing and systematic review
CM Health Library Books:
Greenhaig, Trisha How to implement evidence-based healthcare 2017 [ebook]
Greenhaigh, Trisha How to read a paper: the basics of evidence-based medicine. 5th ed. 2014 [print]
WB 141 G 813 5th ed
Guyatt, Gordon; Rennie, Drummond; Meade, Maureen O; Cook, Deborah J Users' guides to the medical literature : a manual for evidence-based clinical practice . 2014 [print]
W 20.5 A 986
Hoffmann, Tammy; Bennett, Sally; Del Mar, Chris Evidence-based practice across the health professions. 2nd ed. 2013 [print]
W 84 H 711 2nd ed
Howick, Jeremy H Philosophy of Evidence-based Medicine . 2014 [ebook]
Shreves, Ashley, Bhanot, Kavita and Newman, David "Evidence-based medicine" in Emergency Medicine [ebook chapter]
Stern, Scott D. C; Cifu, Adam S; Altkorn, Diane Symptom to diagnosis : an evidence-based guide . 2010 [print]
further online reading from the CM Health Library ebook collection
Nunan,D, O'Sullivan,J, Heneghan,C, Pluddemann,A, Aronson,J & Mahtani,K. (2017).
Ten essential papers for the practice of evidence-based medicine
Evidence-Based Medicine, 22(6), 202-204. doi:10.1136/ebmed-2017-110854
Caldwell,PHY., Bennett,T., & Mellis,C. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2012;48:1095-1100
Easy guide to searching for evidence for the busy clinician
Masic, Izet, Milan Miokovic, and Belma Muhamedagic. “Evidence Based Medicine – New Approaches and Challenges.” Acta Informatica Medica 16.4 (2008): 219–225.
Windish,D. Evidence-Based Medicine 2013;18(3):93-97
Searching for the right evidence: how to answer your clinical questions using the 6S hierarchy
A widget to do a quick lookup in Ovid Medline, Embase or PsycInfo databases:
Ovid PICO Resource Center
Elkins,MY. Nursing 2010;40(4):59-60
Using PICO and the brief report to answer clinical questions
Santos,CMC., Pimenta,CAM., & Nobre,MRC. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagen 2007;15(3);508-511
The PICO strategy for the research question construction and evidence search
Finding and Appraising the Evidence [ online learning modules ]
These modules take you through the process of how to find the evidence and then how to assess the validity and reliability of the published research in order to provide effective and efficient healthcare. The course is made up of 6 modules:
- Overall introduction to critical appraisal
- Finding the evidence
- Randomised controlled trials
- Systematic reviews
- Economic evaluations
- Making sense of results
Understanding Health Research: A tool for making sense of health studies
This tool will guide you through a series of questions to help you to review and interpret a published health research paper
The GRADE handbook describes the process of rating the quality of the best available evidence and developing health care recommendations following the approach proposed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group (www.gradeworkinggroup.org).
Alonso-Coello, Pablo, et al. (2016) BMJ Vol. 353 i2016
GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks: a systematic and transparent approach to making well informed healthcare choices. 1: Introduction
Alonso-Coello, Pablo, et al. (2016) BMJ Vol. 353 : i2089
GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks: a systematic and transparent approach to making well informed healthcare choices. 2: Clinical practice guidelines
Best Practice: Evidence based information sheets for health professionals : 1-6
Appraising Systematic Reviews.
Dans AL et al . (1998) JAMA 279(7):545-549
How to Decide on the Applicability of Clinical Trial Results to Your Patient
Guyatt, G. H , Oxman, A. D , et al . (2008) BMJ Vol. 336 Iss. 7650 : 924-926
GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations
Guyatt, G. H, Oxman, A. D, et al. (2008) BMJ Vol. 336 Iss.7651 : 995-998
What is "quality of evidence" and why is it important to clinicians?
Guyatt, G. H; Oxman, A. D; et al. (2008) BMJ Vol. 336 Iss. 7652 : 1049-1051
Going from evidence to recommendations
Kavanagh BP (2009) PLoS Medicine. 2009;6(9):e1000094
The GRADE System for Rating Clinical Guidelines
Budgell,B. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 2008;52(4):199-204
Guidelines to the writing of case studies
Hewitt-Taylor,J Nursing Standard 2002;16(20):33-37
Case study: an approach to qualitative enquiry
Oakley, Clare. 101 Recipes For Audit In Psychiatry. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2011. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost)
Ashmore,S., & Ruthven,T Nursing Management 2008;15(1):18-22
Clinical audit: a guide
Grainger,A. Nursing Management 2010;17(4):30-33
Clinical audit: shining a light on good practice
Patel,S. Nursing Management 2010;17(3):28-34
Achieving quality assurance through clinical audit
CM Health Library books:
Action research: models, methods and examples
by Claudia Edwards and , Jerry W Willis
Health writer's handbook
by Barbara Gastel
2nd ed. 2005 W20.5 G255
How to write a paper
by George M. Hall
4th ed. 2008 W20.5 H847
How to write an assignment: proven techniques from a chief examiner that really gets results:"don't start writing your assignment without this book"
by Pauline Smith
7th ed. 2009 PN239 S659
An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology
by Lorelle J Burton
2nd ed. 2007 WM20 B974
The Literature Review: Six steps to success
by Lawrence Machi and Brenda McEvoy
2nd ed. 2012 W20.5 M149
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association
by American Psychological Association
6th ed. 2010 WM20 P976
Thinking to thesis: a guide to graduate success at all levels
by Emmanuel Manalo and Julie Trafford
2004 PN239 M266
Writing for publication in nursing
by Marilyn H. Oermann and Judith C. Hays
2nd ed. 2010 WY20.5 O29
Albarran,JW., & Scholes,J Nursing in Critical Care 2005;10(2):72-77
How to get published: seven easy steps
Costello,J Publish or perish: Getting yourself published 2012;7(11):549-551
Publish or perish: Getting yourself published
Happell,B Emergency Nurse 2012;20(1):33-38
Writing and publishing clinical articles: a practical guide
Powell,SS British Journal of Healthcare Assistants 2009;3(3):141-144
Successful academic writing: developing the right style
EndNote is a specialised bibliographic database program for storing and managing bibliographic references.
The references can be sorted and searched, and incorporated automatically into papers for publication.
EndNote may be installed on a designated computer for all Counties Manukau Health staff. Contact the IS department x2266.
Help with EndNote X7
The EndNote website
EndNote Quick Guides : Creating a New Library
EndNote Full Guide : Using Endnote Version X7 With Library Databases
EndNote Training Videos : EndNote X7 overview
We have upgraded our subscription to the latest version of Endnote, Endnote X7.
Please log a job with the Health Alliance IT helpdesk if you would like Endnote X7 installed.
The old version of Endnote, X5 was retired in early 2017 however it will still be accessible on your PC until you decide to upgrade to X7.
If you are using EndNote X7 and you are prompted to upgrade to a new version please click "ignore this" and you will not be bothered again.
Health Alliance will do system wide upgrades on an intermittent basis.
Using Endnote Offsite
If you need to use Endnote offsite, Endnote Web is the best way to do so.
The first step is go to www.myendnoteweb.com and setup an account (you need to do this within the hospital as it will recognise our onsite IP address and allow you full functionality).
If you wish to import your Endnote library from Endnote X5 or X7 to Endnote Web you will need to follow the steps outlined here: http://www.myendnoteweb.com/help/en_us/ENW/hs_researchsoftimport.htm
Whilst we will retain the onsite license for EndNote until September 2018, this is currently under review and we would encourage staff who wish to use referencing tools offsite, either remotely from home or via a mobile device, to consider using one of the freely available open source reference platforms noted below.
Alternatives to EndNote
Adding page numbers [1:32 min] - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmR4VJnSJC0
APA Style Guide for citations (* APA stands for the American Psychological Association. You’ll most likely be asked to use the APA format if your paper is on a science topic)
See also this excellent interactive tool from Massey University:
APA Interactive creates customised examples of APA references and in-text citations.
Massey University also maintains a useful directory of other Referencing Software that staff may find useful (see the applications noted in the section 'Other Software').
Access to our collection from home is via our library website on HealthPoint (also available via the Counties Manukau Health website homepage).
Your username and password will be your staff ID and first name.
username = 12345
Password = PETER
*Please note that your login to access library resources is NOT the same as the Health Point 'Sign in' and 'Register'on the top right of the health point webpage. Click on any of the library databases or resource links to login.